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Layering human intuition onto the
“bytes and bolts” of today's technology

This is an interdisciplinary book specifically focused on the manufacturing engineer who gets things done. This volume of "…the Systems Way" series presents an “evolutionary not revolutionary ” extention to defining and solving safety problems. It builds upon innovative perspective of identifying safety problems as systems problems and gives the tools necessary to both recognize the dimensions of the problem and to develop the strategies that will make both solve the isse AND keep it solved. While Working Safer...the Systems Way takes a commonsense approach, some background mastery of engineering basics is essential to get immediate benefit from this book. More important than a mere collection of facts, the Systems Thinking Discipline teaches a way to think, an approach that you can adapt for your business' and your own benefit, as you progress along that tightrope we call a career in 2000 and beyond.

No text can teach experience. Making our fair share of mistakes is a fundamental milestone on the journey toward becoming seasoned professionals; yet modeling, coaching and teamwork radically ramp up the learning curve, so that you accomplish more satisfying and lasting results from the same or less effort. (It's ok, rarely does anyone believe it until they practice it. You'll get used to leading edge thinking as you progress.)

For beginning engineers
just starting their careers, this book has a wide scope to help you get a feel for the manufacturing landscape while avoiding common mistakes that could stifle your progress.

More experienced engineers
will appreciate the tiered structure of the information presented, allowing you to jump directly to the details that apply to your specific business without wading through pages of concepts and principles you've mastered years ago.

Summary

Part One: "Risk Perception & Reality" lays the foundation for making risk evaluations and assessments part of your daily business equation. Examples of solving the challenge of blending software mastery with shop floor savvy provide an excellent springboard for Part Two: "Introduction to System Safety."

The nine chapters in these first two parts serve to weave the fabric for the rest of the book. Those reading for completeness, follow the table of contents, while those following a single thread should consult the unique topical cross-reference following the Epilogue. Parts One & Two offer you a perspective on increasing productivity within an integrated framework of real-world business conditions.

Part Three: "Building Terms into Techniques" serves as the office equivalent of the gentleman's haberdasher, the 19th-century essential confidante for business. While it's not the same as a live mentor, Part Three offers

  • a survey of background and basics basics for the unsure
  • a "refitting" for the professional whose outlook has changed
  • and for all, a reliable, independent voice in which you find the freedom to formulate your recommendations to your superiors or your clients.

While real-life examples are woven through the book, Part Four: "Soft- & Hardware System Safety Program Elements" actually helps you construct a world-class system safety program at your firm today. This is a practical book to buy now, that you can return to again and again with increasing benefit as your experience compounds; a book with timeless insights distilled and available for immediate application.

Contents

    PART I RISK PERCEPTION & REALITY

  1. RISK IN MODERN SOCIETY
    • A Survey of Attitudes Toward Risk Throughout the Ages
    • What "Justifies" Concern?
    • Risk Factor Variance: Where the "Second World" Fits In
  2. THE RISK OF IGNORANCE
    • Computers Increasingly Shield Us from "Real Life"
    • Software Myths
    • Why "Good" Software Engineering is rare
    • The Reality We Face
  3. ACCIDENT CAUSES
    • Browning & Gilmore: The Concept of Causality
    • Cultural Flaws in the Safety Net
    • Argyris: Ineffective Organizations
    • Ineffective Technical Activities
  4. RISK REVERSAL AND HUMAN ERROR
    • Is it me Ma? Say it ain't so! Designing-in Fault Tolerance
    • The Value-Added of the Human Dimension in Automated Systems
    • Econergnomics: People, Process and Product, Their Roles in Task Mismatch
      • Blending Economics and Ergonomics to Present a Fuller Picture of Life-Cycle Costing
    • Conclusions
  5. ERGONOMICS: DESIGN FOR OPTIMUM MAN-MACHINE INTERACTION
    • Background & Boundaries
    • One Size Definitely Doesn't Fit All: Matching Equipment, Tasks and People
    • Reducing Safety-Critical Human Errors
      • Providing Appropriate Information and Feedback
    • Maintaining Skills: make every day a Training Evolution
  6. OUR ROLE IN AUTOMATED SYSTEMS
    • Mental Models: One of Senge's Five Systems Thinking Disciplines
    • Automated Systems Avoidance
    • Constructive Engagement
    • Involvement
      • People as Proctors
      • People as Backup
      • People as Partner
    • Conclusions

    PART II INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM SAFETY

  7. SYSTEM SAFETY FOUNDATIONS
    • The State of the Art (...and Science) of Safety Engineering Prior to the Rise of the Corporation (ca. 1910-1940’s)
    • Systems Theory
    • Systems Thinking
    • Systems Engineering
    • Systems Analysis
  8. SYSTEM SAFETY FUNDAMENTALS
    • Background & Boundaries
    • Software System Safety
    • System Safety in the Cost and Effectiveness Matrix
  9. On the Other Hand... SAFETY FROM OTHER PROFESSIONS' PERSPECTIVES
    • Industrial Safety
    • Reliability Engineering
    • Application-Specific Safety Approaches
    • Finance
    • Operations

    PART III BUILDING TERMS INTO TECHNIQUES
    (or How to really put all this to work!)

  10. TERMS AND MODELS
    • Risk
    • Safety
    • Security
    • Hazard
    • Failure and Error
    • Accident and Incident
    • Conduct of Operations
    • Accident Models
    • I Came, I Saw, I Blew It: People's Mental Models of Error and Success
    • Summary

    PART IV SOFT- & HARDWARE SYSTEMS SAFETY PROGRAM ELEMENTS

  11. MANAGING SAFETY BY MANAGING SAFELY
    • Roles, Moles & Voles: Participants, Detractors and Neutrals in Organizational Structure
    • Documentation: No Tribal Knowledge!
  12. DESIGNING SAFETY "IN"
    • The Design Process
      • Sashimi vs. Over-the-Wall
    • Design Techniques
    • Design Modification and Maintenance
  13. SAFETY VERIFICATION
    • Static Analysis
    • Dynamic Analysis
    • Safety & Quality: Two Sides of the Same Coin; Independent Verification and Validation
    • Summary
  14. HAZARD ANALYSIS MODELS AND TECHNIQUES
    • Hazard Analysis Background: overview and general types
    • Hazard Analysis Boundaries: limits of & problems with the technique
    • Hazard Indices
      • Checklists, Walkthroughs and Observations
      • "Interface Analyses": Whose Face Are Ya Inter?
    • Fault Tree Analysis
    • Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA)
      • Failure Modes, Effects, and Criticality Analysis (FMECA)
    • Fault Hazard Analysis (FHA)
    • Event Tree Analysis
    • Cause-Consequence Analysis (CCA)
    • Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT) Analysis
    • Hazards and Operability Analysis (HAZOP)
    • Machine State Hazard Analysis (MSHA)
    • Econergnomics Revisited: People and Process Error Analysis Techniques
    • Hazard Analysis Technique Evaluations
  15. REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS FOR ADDRESSING PROCESS HAZARDS
    • Process Considerations & Constraints
    • Parts is Parts: Requirement(s) Specification Stages
      • ReqSpec Completeness
    • How Done is Done?: Req Analysis Completeness
  16. A SYSTEMS APPROACH TO PROCESS DESIGN & IMPLEMENTATION PRACTICES
    • Foundations
      • Chapter 7 in a thimble
    • Conceptual Development
      • Examples
    • Design
      • Examples
    • Pilot- & Full-Scale Development
      • Examples
    • Production and Delivery
      • Examples
    • Unique Challenges of Profitable Steady-State Operation
      • Examples
    • Ramp-Down, Phase-Out, Clean-Up Operations
      • Examples

EPILOGUEInternal, International, Internet:
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